U.S. Census and American Community Survey microdata from 1850 to the present. Learn More about the IPUMS USA project
Current Population Survey microdata including basic monthly surveys and supplements from 1962 to the present. Learn More about the IPUMS CPS project
World's largest collection of census microdata covering over 100 countries, contemporary and historical. Learn More about the IPUMS International Project
Tabular U.S. Census data and GIS boundary files from 1790 to the present. Learn More about the IPUMS NHGIS Project
Tabular and GIS data from population, housing, and agricultural censuses around the world. Learn More about the IPUMS IHGIS Project
Find additional spatial population & environmental data in IPUMS Terra.
Historical and contemporary time use data from 1930 to the present. Learn More about the IPUMS Time Use Projects
Historical and contemporary U.S. health survey data from Visit the IPUMS NHIS site (1963-present) and Visit the IPUMS MEPS site (1996-present). Learn More about the IPUMS Health Surveys Projects
The IPUMS International Historical Geographic Information System (IHGIS) provides subnational data from agricultural and population and housing censuses from around the world. The agricultural census data cover a wide range of information on agricultural inputs, labor, production, and more, which can be used to explore a variety of research questions. IHGIS data can help understand, for instance, which factors contribute to better crop productivity, including the role of fertilizer use. Researchers have used agricultural census data at the subnational level to analyze the negative relationship between farm size and fertilizer overuse in China (Ju et al. 2016); the relationship between maize yield, farm size and fertilizer and irrigation use in Mexico (LaFevor and Magliocca 2020); the use of chemical fertilizers in direct market farms in the U.S. (Schoolman 2019); and the environmental sustainability of using fertilizers, insecticides and pesticides in Pakistan (Zulfiqar and Thapa 2017).